These depressed conditions created a growing discontent which, in 1896, led to the first revolutionary conflict in Negros, also called the Babaylanes Insurrection. The movement was under the leadership of Dionisio Sigobela, later known as the legendary Papa lsio (Isio the Pope). It fought under the banner of a fervent nationalism, revived traditional pre-Christian religious practises and demandedradical land reform.
The movement rapidly gained adherents whomassed as rebel forces in mountain areas, mainly on the slopes of Mt. Kanlaon. Fromthere, the Babaylanes undertook several attacks against neighboring haciendas. They also declared their sympathy for the nationalist Katipunan insurrection, although this movement was locally led by prominent planters.
Taking advantage of a brief alliance with Papa Isio, the Katipuneros, under the local command of Aniceto Lacson and Juan Araneta, staged a coup d'etat which on November 6, 1898, swept the Spanish administration from power on Negros. Aniceto Lacson was elected first President of the provisional government of Negros in Bacolod City.
In the eastern part of Negros, the colonial era came to an end November 24, 1898 when Demetrio Larena took over as President. November 27, 1898, a cantonal form of government was adopted by representatives of Oriental and Occidental Negros, declaring the island an independent "Federal Republic of Negros", subdivided into two provinces, Negros Oriental and Negros Occidental.
However, the revolutionaries in Luzon, under the command of General Aguinaldo, rejected the move. The aim of the Luzon revolutionaries was to establish provincial councils under a centralized command.
In addition to reprisals from the troops of Aguinaldo, the officials of the new republic had to fear another rival for power. Representing the social elite, they considered their previous allies, the Babaylanes, a threat to internal security. In an attempt to bribe Babaylanes leader Papa Isio, they invited him to Bacolod, showered him with respect and decorations and bestowed on him the title "military chief of La Castellana".
However, distrust and fear remained with the landlords. Only three months after the declaration of independence, on February 11 1898, the new government contacted US General Otis, formally seeking protection under the sovereignty of the US. Negros Occidental was the first province of the archipelago to take such a step. The Stars and Stripes was raised over Dumaguete (Negros Oriental), April 30, 1899. Col. James Smith (who would become Governor General in 1906) was the first military governor of Negros.
Immediately following the treaty between the Negros Committee and the US, lsio Papa withdrew his allegiance from the local government. He assumed the leadership in a fierce fight against both, the new colonial power and the prevailing social order. The insurgents instigated mass uprisings in the vast haciendas along the slopes of Mt. Kanlaon and razed several towns in the course of a few months.
It took US forces and their local lackeys eight years to subdue the insurrection. Finally cornered by government forces, Isio Papa surrendered to an American officer August 6, 1907. He was first sentenced to death, but the punishment was later mitigated to life imprisonment. Papa Isio died in New Bilibid Prison near Manila in 1911.
Yohimbine is an alpha-2-adrenergic antagonist. It increases the heart rate and blood pressure and causes CNS stimulation and anti-diuresis (Reynolds et al., 1989).